Commit 7e806926 authored by René Schöne's avatar René Schöne
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Add DSL description to documentation.

- contains features still to be implemented
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!!! attention
Not all features described here are (fully) implemented yet, please see the [progress of milestone for 1.0.0](https://git-st.inf.tu-dresden.de/jastadd/ragconnect/-/milestones/2) first.
# The RagConnect Specification Language
To declare endpoints and mappings, a domain-specific language ([DSL](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain-specific_language)) is used.
## Endpoints
An endpoint marks an element of an AST as sending or receiving element.
The kind of the element determines, whether an endpoint for it can be receiving, sending, or both at the same time.
To declare a new endpoints, use the following syntax:
```
("send"|"receive") ["indexed"] ["with add"] <Non-Terminal>[.<Target>["()"]] ["using" <Mapping-Name> (, <Mapping-Name>)*] ";"
```
A breakdown of the parts of that syntax:
- The first word (`send` or `receive`) defines the kind of endpoint - sending or receiving, respectively.
- The optional `indexed` applies only for list children and lets the endpoint act on elements of that list.
This only works for receiving endpoints, and is further changed by `with add`.
- A lonely `indexed` assigns each incoming "topic" to an index in a list.
This can be useful if multiple instances of this endpoint are connected, or the communication protocol supports wildcard topics.
For the former case, the connect method with an explicit index can be used, whereas the "normal" connect method without the index acts as a method for "wildcard-connect".
- Combining `indexed with add`, incoming data is required to be an element of the list, and will be appended to the list.
- The second optional keyword `with add` can also be used only for receiving endpoints targeting a list children.
As described above, it can be combined with `indexed`.
If used on its own, the incoming data is interpreted as a complete list and its elements will be appended to the current list.
- The `<Non-Terminal>[.<Target>["()"]]` notation describes the actual affected node.
- If the target is omitted, all nodes of that non-terminal type can be connected, irrespective of their context.
- The target can be any child on the right-hand side of a production rule, a role of a relation, or an attribute.
The brackets `()` after the target must be used in case of an attribute, and only then.
- Optionally, an endpoint can use one or more [mappings](#mappings).
They will be applied before sending, or after receiving a message.
Mappings will always be applied in the order they are listed after `using`.
## Mappings
A mapping is a side effect-free function with one argument (the value that will be transformed) and one result (the transformed value), that will be applied on a value to be sent for a sending endpoint, a received value for a receiving endpoint, or the result of another mapping.
Mappings can be shared between endpoints.
To declare a mapping, use the following syntax:
```
<Mapping-Name> "maps" <From-Type> <Input-Variable-Name> "to" "To-Type" "{:"
<Java-Block>
":}"
```
A breakdown of the parts of that syntax:
- The `<Mapping-Name>` identifies the mapping.
- The `<From-Type` is the type of the input. The type of the first mapping of a receiving endpoint must be `byte[]`.
- To refer to the input, `<Input-Variable-Name>` defines the name of it.
- The `<To-Type>` is the type of the result. The type of the last mapping of a sending endpoint must be `byte[]`.
- Finally, the `<Java-Block>` is the actual definition of the mapping using normal Java syntax.
The previously defined input variable can be used via its name here.
This block can contain multiple statements, but must end with a `return` statement.
The validity of this block is not verified by RagConnect itself, but later in the compilation process by the Java compiler.
Note: There are default mappings provided for all primitive Java types (using their "normal" byte representation), and for all non-terminal types (using their JSON representation converted from/to bytes).
Those default mappings apply to both sending and receiving endpoints, and match their counterparts, e.g., the mapping from `int` to `byte[]` uses the same byte representation as the mapping back from `byte[]` to `int`.
Default mappings are always inserted if either no mapping is present, or if the type of the first/last mapping is not `byte[]` as stated above.
Their main intent is to allow quick prototyping without constraining a more complex use case.
## Dependency definitions
!!! note
Deprecated since `1.0.0`
A dependency definition describes a possible dependency on type-level from a token to an attribute.
Whenever the token changes, the attribute is eagerly re-computed and endpoints attached to it are triggered.
Such a dependency must be added on instance-level for every token that could have an influence to the attribute.
An alternative for those explicit dependency definitions is [incremental dependency tracking](/using#dependency-tracking-automatically-derived).
To declare a dependency definition, use the following syntax:
```
<Non-Terminal-1>.<Target> "canDependOn" <Non-Terminal-2>.<Token-Name> "as" <Dependency-Name> ";"
```
A breakdown of the parts of that syntax:
- `<Non-Terminal-1>.<Target>` denotes the attribute (and the non-terminal it is defined on) which depends on the token
- `<Non-Terminal-2>.<Token-Name>` denotes the token (and the non-terminal it is defined on) that (potentially) influences the attribute value
- `<Dependency-Name>` identifies the dependency definition and is used for the generated method, which will be defined on `Non-Terminal-1` as `<Non-Terminal-1>.add<Dependency-Name>(<Non-Terminal-2> influencingNode)`
......@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@ nav:
- "RagConnect by Example": using.md
- "Use Cases": use_cases.md
- "Adding RagConnect to your project": adding.md
- "RagConnect Specification Language": dsl.md
- "Compiler options": compiler.md
- "Inner workings": inner-workings.md
- "Extending RagConnect": extending.md
......@@ -19,6 +20,7 @@ theme:
markdown_extensions:
- toc:
permalink:
- admonition
plugins:
- search
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Supports Markdown
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